Richmond Vale

NEWS: What Africa's Drought Responses Are Teaching Us

Some parts of the world have been able to undergo climate change with relatively little damage. Others, such as the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia, are already feelings its full-blown effects. [caption id="attachment_5504" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Namibia and Botswana are two of the many countries in the arid regions of Asia and Africa that are facing the full-blown effects of climate change. They chose to act on them - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Countries like Namibia and Botswana are pioneers in battling the effects of climate change . These countries are facing now what could become the new normal for the world in a few years time. So what do we do? We listen, we analyze and we learn. The unique socio-political and environmental circumstances of Namibia and Botswana have only been worsened by climate change. This calls for effective, long-lasting solutions. Both countries are involved in the Adaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions (ASSAR) project. THe ASSAR initiative focuses on minimizing vulnerability and developing adaptation responses mainly through vulnerability and risk assessment workshops. In these workshops, people from all walks of life identify the issues and hazards of most concern and generate adequate responses. Read the entire article from The Wire below: WHAT AFRICA'S DROUGHT RESPONSES TEACH US ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE HOTSPOTS The world may still argue about whether or not climate change is for real....
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NEWS: Tanzania's Maasai Facing Impacts of Climate Change

[caption id="attachment_5487" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Photo Credit: Wikipedia As temperatures continue to rise all over the world and flooding becomes commonplace in certain areas, the human race is already facing the impacts of climate change . The Maasai people of Tanzania, a nomadic cattle herder tribe who has lived in the country since the XV century, is being pushed to the brink of survival. While weather in Tanzania's Serengeti region has always been harsh; historically, the Maasai have been able to thrive by relocating to places with more suitable conditions. However, in recent times, land restrictions consequence of increasing demands for agriculture products and tourism have restricted the Maasai's land range. Nowadays, the live a semi-sedentary life and are struggling to find food for their cattle and themselves. Read below for the full article by Emma Hutchinson on Climate Central : TANZANIA'S MAASAI FACING IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE The air across the plain sizzles in the 95-degree heat, blurring the image of the huts in the distance. There’s a 23-year-old Maasai warrior named Lekoko beside me and a group of 35 American tourists behind me. Despite having only spent three months learning English, Lekoko gives us a seamless tour of his boma, a circle of five clay huts surrounding a livestock pen. He explains that the Maasai have lived in present-day Tanzania since the 15th century, and...
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NEWS: Study Quantifies Climate-Change-Related Deaths

For many, the present and future implications of climate change go unnoticed. Many climate change deniers and other members of the global community still cannot grasp the consequences this issue can entail for them, mainly because they are largely presented using indirect impact measures. Rising average temperatures over land and ocean may make people think of turning up their air conditioners. But do they make them think of an impending global crisis? Probably not. [caption id="attachment_5482" align="aligncenter" width="500"] A new study links hundreds of deaths from the 2003 European heatwave to man-made climate change - Photo Credit: Wikipedia That was until now. A study published in Environmental Research Letters quantified the number of deaths caused by climate change during the 2003 European heatwave. Directly linking losses to climate change is expected to be a more effective measure in showing people the devastating effects of this problem. Aside from statistics on the proliferation of tropical diseases , the occurrence of more extreme weather events, etc; showing people that climate change can carry fatal consequences perhaps will be an eye-opener for many. Read the full article from National Geographic below: STUDY QUANTIFIES CLIMATE-CHANGE-RELATED DEATHS A study in Environmental Research Letters suggests a fifth of premature deaths during a 2003 heatwave in Europe are linked to human-caused climate change . “We are now able to put a number on...
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NEWS: India's Solar Plans Receive Billion Dollar Boost

[caption id="attachment_5376" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Photo Credit: Wikipedia India has been granted a $1 billion loan by the World Bank to fulfill its ambitious solar power goals. Framed in the UN Climate Summit in Paris, the Asian country seeks to triple its use of renewable energy by 2030. The measure, which many countries —including Germany and the United States— have shown support for would transform India's energy industry and have major impact in the worldwide fight against climate change and global warming . India's Prime Minister, Narendra Mori, is at the forefront of the initiative, which comes as no surprise given the disastrous impact climate change has had on the country. A recent study has shown a link between man-made climate change and the increasingly erratic and unpredictable monsoon , which is vital for the agricultural crops over 70% of India's population depend on for subsistence. Furthermore, t he severe heat waves that have driven the temperatures upwards of 50C in some places have caused the death of many and compromised the livelihoods of over 330 million people. Read the full article from Climate Change News below: INDIA'S SOLAR PLANS RECEIVE BILLION DOLLAR BOOST World Bank loan comes off back of major funding pledges from US and Germany as major economies try and wean Delhi off coal. The sun is shining a little brighter on Delhi's ambitious...
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NEWS: ExxonMobil Backs Carbon Tax

[caption id="attachment_5366" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Photo Credit: Flickr In a move that may seem surprising to many, oil giant ExxonMobil has been lobbying for the implementation of a carbon tax to curb greenhouse gas emissions. It is rumoured that the the company has chosen this path to stay clear of more restrictive oil and gas regulations, that could come as consequence of complete intransigence regarding climate change efforts. The initiative, which is also backed by independent economists, provides a window of opportunity for Exxon, who could benefit from both the good press and a price on carbon. The oil supermajor has been involved in incessant media and legal scrutiny regarding its alleged cover-up of scientific evidence —going back three decades— that climate change has anthropogenic roots or that it is happening at all . Moreover, a set price on carbon could  put Exxon's natural gas business front and center on the list of alternatives to coal-powered power plants. Read the full article from OilPrice.com below: EXXONMOBIL BACKS CARBON TAX FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ExxonMobil is one of the top targets of environmental activists, pursued because of its alleged misinformation campaign on climate change over the past few decades. It may come as a surprise to many then that ExxonMobil is actually pressing U.S. legislators to pass a carbon tax in the name of addressing climate change. The Wall...
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SVG’s ‘Treelympics’ win International Award

“ Treelympics SVG ”, the local arm of a worldwide tree planting competition has won the Austria-based Energy Globe National Award 2016 for St. Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG). The project, implemented by Richmond Vale Academy , resulted in 1,500 trees being planted in SVG since 2014. Treelympics SVG was among 1,700 submissions from countries across the world. The Energy Globe Award was founded in 1999 by the Austrian energy pioneer Wolfgang Neumann and is one of today’s most prestigious environmental awards. The award aims to present successful sustainable projects to a broad audience. Projects that conserve and protect natural resources or that employ renewable energy can participate. National (country) Energy Globe Awards distinguish the best project submission from a country. National winners receive an Energy Globe certificate, which is presented by partner organisation (if available) in the respective countries. SVG Treelympics formed part of the broader Environment Online (ENO) pledge at the Rio+20 Summit to plant 100 million trees by 2017. As a part of their pledge, ENO launched the Treelympics campaign, a worldwide competition in tree planting for schools and community organisations. More than 100 countries have participated. In 2014, Richmond Vale Academy mobilised 99 per cent of the schools in SVG to plant trees, making St. Vincent the winners of the Golden Medal for the world’s most active country. In the fall of...
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NEWS: CO2 Turned Into Stone To Fight Climate Change

The future of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies A new study conducted in the Hellisheidi power plant in Iceland has found that carbon dioxide can be turned into stone much more quickly than previously thought, thus reducing the plant's emissios and helping in the fight against climate change . [caption id="attachment_5198" align="aligncenter" width="500"] The Hellisheidi geothermal power plant has used basalt to capture underground its carbon dioxide emissions. -Photo Credit: Wikipedia A team of scientists pumped the plant's carbon dioxide emissions, and other gases, to a depth of 400-500m in a soil rich in basalts. The results: the basalts react with carbon dioxide, creating carbonate minerals which make up limestone. The whole process takes two years, compared with the few thousands that were previously estimated. Turning carbon dioxide into rock gets rid of the leakage concerns from storing it as gas underground and of separating CO2 from other gases before sequestering it. Moreover, basalts are found in many places around the world, including sea beds and in very pollutant countries, such as the United States and India, which would make the implementation of this form of CCS in those countries very cost-effective. On the downside, this technology uses excessive amounts of water, needing 25tonnes of it per every tonne of carbon minerals produced. As proposed by the scientific team who conducted the study, the required amount of...
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NEWS: Overlooked Area of Antarctica Sees Major Ice Loss

New research on a relatively unmonitored part of Antarctica shows that the ice in the area has been melting at a faster pace —and for longer— than previously thought. The study, which appears in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, provides insight on the implications of ice loss in Antarctica for sea level rise ( for a brief compilation on the topic, check this article ). [caption id="attachment_4863" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Satellite reviews of West Antarctica over the past two decades show the rapid increase of ice-loss. The ice shelves —blocks of floating ice that flow from Antarctica's glaciers to the ocean— are shrinking and disappearing, this leaves way for warm waters to gnaw at the glaciers' grounding line, which separates land-bound ice from the floating ice. As a consequence, the grounding line in West Antarctica's glaciers has started to receed and expose thicker, older ice; thus increasing the flow of the glaciers. In some cases, this acceleration in flow has reached the point of no-return. Put in perspective, if all glaciers in West Antarctica were to melt, sea level rise would be of 10 to 13 feet. Read the full article from Seeker below: OVERLOOKED AREA OF ANTARCTICA SEES MAJOR ICE LOSS A relatively little studied part of West Antarctica has seen considerable ice loss over a longer period of time...
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NEWS: Japan Contributes US$ 1.8 Million To Jamaica's Climate Change Fight

Japan will contribute 220 million Jamaican dollars to the country's efforts in fighting climate change. The initiative is framed in the Japan-Caribean Climate Change Partnership, which will see the Asian country spend US$ 15 million in eight Caribbean countries. The project is being implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and will benefit Belize, Suriname, Guyana, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Dominica, Saint Lucia and Jamaica. [caption id="attachment_4856" align="aligncenter" width="500"] A street in Montego Bay, Jamaica - Photo Credit: Wikipedia The Japan-Caribbean cooperation is a success within the establishment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The entirety of Agenda, and specifically Global Goal 13 and Global Goal 17 , call for international cooperation in building capacity and resilience in the wake of increasingly severe weather. Read the full article by the Jamaica Observer below: JAPAN COMMITS $220 MILLION TO ASSIST JAMAICA IN CLIMATE CHANGE FIGHT The Japan Government has earmarked approximately US$1.8 million ($220 million) through the Japan-Caribbean Climate Change Partnership (J-CCCP) to provide assistance to Jamaica in climate change mitigation and adaptation. Approximately $73 million of that sum will be provided to support on-the-ground work to help communities’ efforts to cope with the effects of climate change. Another portion of the money will be allocated at the national level to address barriers to the implementation of climate-resilient technologies and to build Jamaica’s own capacity...
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NEWS: Climate Change Is Threatening Canada's Indigenous Communities

Climate change is increasing the number and severity of natural disasters in Canada, says a secret briefing to the country's Indigenous Affairs Minister. Catastrophes like the May wildfires that affected Fort McMurray and Saskatchewan are particularly harmful to indigenous people living in remote reserve communities. Contrary to declarations from Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau —who said the Fort McMurray fires were not exacerbated by climate change— secret advice to the Indigenous Affairs Minister  cites indigenous communities being at a greater risk for experiencing natural disasters. This would be a consequence of extreme weather in the Canadian north, which has been fueled by climate change. [caption id="attachment_4847" align="aligncenter" width="800"] The catastrophic wildfires that took place this may burnt 581,695 hectares between Fort McMurray and Saskatchewan. The fires destroyed an approximate of 2,400 homes and buildings and affected the Athabasca oil sands opperations. The 2016 Fort McMurray's wildfires are the costliest wildfires in the area as of yet - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Indigenous communities have been vocal about the insufficient measures taken by the government in prevention and mitigation of natural disasters in reserve territory, despite recent public investments in First Nations "resilience" and infrastructure. Read the entire post from Canada's National Post below: FIRST NATIONS COMMUNITIES SUFFERING 'MORE INTENSE' IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE, SECRET BRIEFING SAYS OTTAWA — Secret briefings to Canada’s indigenous affairs minister warn that...
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NEWS: Guilt Is Not Very Effective For Getting People Involved with Climate Change

A new study by Nick Obradovich and Scott M. Guenther has found that guilt-tripping people into thinking of climate change is not a very effective way to get them to care about it. The study, posted on the scientific journal Climatic Change, is based on two experiments conducted on members of the Audubon Society and of Mechanical Turk. In the experiments, people were sorted into three groups, each with different instructions. They were to write about either their personal contribution to climate change, the general causes of this issue or their daily oral hygiene rutine. As incentive, the writers were told they were on to win $100 and subsequently asked how much of it they would donate to climate change-related causes. [caption id="attachment_4811" align="aligncenter" width="800"] Photo Credit: Pixabay Surprisingly, those who wrote about their personal contribution to climate change donated a similar amount to those who wrote about their oral hygiene. Both groups donated less than the individuals who wrote about the general causes of climate change. The answer? No one likes to feel guilt, and getting people to care about climate change by making them feel they hold the sole responsibility is counterproductive. Instead, people are more likely to engage in cleaner practices and support climate change research if they feel they are contributing to solving an issue that affects us all. These results are consistent...
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NEWS: World Heritage Sites At Risk From Climate Change

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has released a report on the impact climate change has had on World Heritage sites. The report, aptly titled "World Heritage and Tourism in a Changing Climate", was mentioned in yesterday's NEWS post , after Australia censored it citing potential harm for tourism. [caption id="attachment_4804" align="aligncenter" width="800"] Cartagena, in Colombia, is among the most vulnerable World Heritage Sites, according to Un report - Photo Credit: Wikipedia UNESCO seeks to highlight and inform the general reader about the terrible consequences sea-level rise, increasing temperatures and melting ice —among other climate change effects— can carry for World Heritage Sites, which are considered to have "Outstanding Universal Value". The report, which covers places like Cartagena, Venice and the Galapagos Islands, is also a call to decouble environmentally harmful practices and tourism. Read the full news article, as published by the UN , below: WORLD HERITAGE SITES AT RISK FROM CLIMATE CHANGE —JOINT UN REPORT 27 May 2016 – Some 31 natural and cultural World Heritage sites in 29 countries across the world are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, a new report released by the United Nations has found. The World Heritage and Tourism in a Changing Climate report documents climate impacts including increasing temperatures, melting glaciers, rising seas, intensifying weather events, worsening droughts and longer wildfire seasons, at iconic...
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NEWS: Report on Great Barrier Reef Disaster Censored by Australian Government

It was mentioned in this article from last week that the Great Barrier Reef in Australia is experiencing its worst episode of bleaching. Ever . The combined action of climate change and weather phenomena have caused warm waters to severely damage 93% of the corals in the area. Moreover, half of the corals in the northerm part of the Reef have allegedly died. [caption id="attachment_4789" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Bleached Acropora coral. Keppel Islands, Great Barrier Reef - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Such a tremendous blow to biodiversity at the hands of man-induced climate change would naturally appear in the UNESCO's "World Heritage and Tourism in a Changing Climate" report, right? Wrong. As the report was being reviewed, the Australian Government objected on the grounds that: "Recent experience in Australia had shown that negative commentary about the status of world heritage properties impacted on tourism", and thus, any mention of Australia in the report was scrubbed from it. The Guardian has since posted the censored Australia section of the report, which you can read here . For the full article, also by The Guardian, on the censorship, please read below: AUSTRALIA SCRUBBED FROM UN CLIMATE CHANGE REPORT AFTER GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION Exclusive: All mentions of Australia were removed from the final version of a Unesco report on climate change and world heritage sites after the Australian government objected on the grounds...
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NEWS: How Carbon Farming Can Reverse Climate Change

Carbon farming encompasses a series of practices that allow to reduce carbon emissions by sequestering said carbon underground. These practices, such as crop rotations and agroforestry can be implemented strategically to maintain or increase yields while reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of plantations. This is especially important given that the agricultural industry is one of the main contributors to GHG emissions worldwide. [caption id="attachment_4728" align="aligncenter" width="500"] oung soybean plants thrive in and are protected by the residue of a wheat crop. This form of no till farming provides good protection for the soil from erosion and helps retain moisture for the new crop. - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Sequestering carbon underground is nothing new and in fact, it is part of the carbon cycle, a part of nature that fuels life. However, technology on carbon sequestration is still in its early stages --as mentioned in this previous post-- . The jury is still out on whether it can carry adverse consequences of not, but the little research done on the topic has given promising results. EcoWatch wrote an interesting article on how carbon farming can reverse climate change. You can read it below: HOW CARBON FARMING CAN REVERSE CLIMATE CHANGE Are there agricultural practices that might offer more potential than the ones commonly discussed in the “ carbon farming ” conversation? In a  companion post , I wrote about...
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NEWS: China's CTG Plants Pose a Threat For The Planet

CTG —which stands for coal-to-gas— technology encompasses expossing coal to controlled amounts of heat and limiting the oxygen so it breaks apart chemically rather than burning. The outcome of this process is syngas —short for synthetic natural gas—, which would reduce the air pollution generated by power plants accross the country. However, there's a catch in China's attempt to clear their black skies: coal-to-gas plants require more water and release more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere than coal burning does . On the long run, implementation of CTG technology would increase China's greenhouse gas emissions between 36 an 82%, which would have disastrous consequences for the environment. [caption id="attachment_4723" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Photo Credit: Wikipedia On a brighter note, CTG is quite costly, a factor that has significantly influenced the failure of this enterprise in other countries, such as the United States. It was discussed in a previous post that the North American country has contemplated the use of coal-to-gas technology as an alternative to thermoelectric plants that rely on burning coal. However, only one plant is operating. This means that, although China has three plants running and several others in the planning and approval stages, the jury is still out on whether they will be built or not. Read the full article by Vox down below: CHINA'S LATEST IDEA FOR CLEANING UP AIR POLLUTION COULD BE HORRIBLE FOR...
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NEWS: Global Warming Record Streak Hits Seven Months

April is the seventh month in a streak of record breaking temperatures, reports Market Watch. The article, which uses data from the NASA and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States, says that last month was the hottest April on record, with an average global temperature increase of 1.11 °C over the 1951-1980 average. April 2016 is also the third month in a row to break temperature records for the biggest margin ever. [caption id="attachment_4718" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Photo Credit: Wikipedia The effects of temperature rises are already being felt around the world. 93% of Australia's Great Barrier Reef has been affected by bleaching, which can be deadly if the sudden surge of temperatures does not die down. While this can be mitigated by changing conditions, it is expected that this natural wonder will not recover. Further implications of global warming can be seen in this article.  For the full piece by Market Watch , please read below: GLOBAL WARMING RECORD STREAK HITS SEVEN MONTHS IN APRIL If April felt unusually warm, that’s because it was. The string of record-breaking global temperatures recorded this year continued last month, according to the latest figures from NASA. It was the hottest April on record, the data showed, with the average temperature 1.11 degrees Celsius warmer than average for the period stretching from 1951 to 1980, a period...
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NEWS: Akwa Ibom State Will Host Climate Change Mega Summit in July

Akwa Ibom, a Nigerian State, will be the first sub-national government to sponsor and host a Post-COP21 National Dialogue. The event, with theme "Charting A Road Map For Sustainable Environment And Creation Of Green Jobs In Akwa Ibom State", wil be held between July 26th and July 28th, 2016 and will end with a golf tournament for climate change on July 30th. The summit is set to take place at Le’Meridien Ibom Hotel & Golf Resort in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom. [caption id="attachment_4653" align="aligncenter" width="800"] Akwa Ibom State, in Nigeria, is the first sub-national state to host a climate change national dialogue post COP21 - Photo Credit: Wikipedia The summit, which will see "experts, intellectuals and major stakeholders in the environment" brainstorm to provide solutions for the climate change issue in the area, is of great importance for Akwa Ibom. Climate change and global warming have had serious impact in the nigerian state on social and bio-physical levels. Moreover, several coastal communities in Akwa Ibom are already relocating due to sea level rise and excessive flooding. Read the full article from Today Nigeria below: AKWA IBOM HOSTS FIRST CLIMATE CHANGE, CLEAN ENERGY MEGA SUMMIT The government of Akwa Ibom State, through the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, in collaboration with Water Safety Initiative Foundation, Africa Clean Energy Summit and the Environment Communications Limited, is set...
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NEWS: This GIF Shows How Global Warming Has Sped Up!

A new animated GIF by Ed Hawkins, a climate scientist at the University of Reading, in the United Kingdom, shows a spiral model of global warming. The animation, made with data from the UK Met Office, illustrates this pressing issue in way that is easier to understand for the public at large.  On the wake of COP 21 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development , it's become increasingly important to engage the global community in reducing their carbon emissions in order to curb global warming before it reaches 2°C  and stop further climate change. [caption id="attachment_4637" align="aligncenter" width="720"] Monthly global temperatures from 1850-2016. Photograph: Ed Hawkins /Climate Central Read the full article from The Guardian below: SEE EARTH'S CLIMATE SPIRAL TOWARDS 2°C RISE -  GRAPHIC Climate Central : A new graphic shows Earth’s temperatures spiralling toward the 2C global warming limit The steady rise of Earth’s temperature as greenhouse gases accumulate in the atmosphere and trap more and more heat is sending the planet spiraling closer to the point where warming’s catastrophic consequences may be all but assured. That metaphoric spiral has become a literal one in a new graphic drawn up by Ed Hawkins , a climate scientist at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom. The animated graphic features a rainbow-colored record of global temperatures spinning outward from the late 19th century...
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NEWS: St. Vincent is also Marching Against Monsanto!

On Saturday May 21st. 2016, we will gather with all invited organizations, guests and interested parties; in front of the Court House in Kingstown, from 9 a.m. to 1 p.m. The IRM goals are to make this an Edutaining day in which facts, information, are discussed and shared in order to raise national attention to the dangers of GMO's and their use in SVG. In collaboration with the Organizers of the March Against Monsanto , Richmond Vale Academy, Student leaders of the SVG Community College; the IRM 's ultimate goal is to have St. Vincent & the Grenadines be heard, not only on a local level but by others around the world, who are struggling to end Monsanto's domination of our planet's food supply in seeds. We hope you will join the IRM in this Global Event. We will be conducting general public meetings in the near future to ensure this event is inclusive of all stakeholders. All will be encouraged and invited to attend and participate. Stay tuned to local Radio Station, and the Facebook page “ March Against Monsanto - S t . Vincent & the Grenadines ”. For more information about the event contact: IRM Directors, Ras Andre Liverpool 784-593-4752 & Ras Yacob 784 454-7279
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NEWS: Indonesian Genocide Is a Factor in Global Warming

A new article by Joshua Oppenheimer blames 1965's genocide in Indonesia for the ongoing corruption that enables current-day rainforest fires. Indonesia's blooming palm-oil industry exterminates acres upon acres of virgin rainforest on a daily basis. The easiest, quickest way to do so is through forced fires that release amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere comparable to Japan's yearly emissions. [caption id="attachment_4538" align="aligncenter" width="500"] Deforestation in Indonesia, product of the palm-oil industry - Photo Credit: Wikipedia Indonesia has laws against these practices, however, they are enabled by the country's corrupt military force. Back in 1965, the military murdered between 500,000 and 1 million indonesians following orders from the dictatorship. The perpetrators of these crimes were given power and authority which they still hold and use as leverage to protect the palm-oil industry and numerous human rights violations. Read the full article, as posted in The Guardian , below: WHY TODAY'S GLOBAL WARMING HAS ROOTS IN INDONESIA'S GENOCIDAL PAST There has been tremendous concern over the ways climate change will affect human rights, but little attention to how human rights abuse affects our global climate. Fifty years ago, Indonesia went through a genocide. The massacres may be relatively unknown, but in a terrible way the destruction continues, and threatens us all. In 1965, the Indonesian army organised paramilitary death squads and  exterminated between 500,000 and 1 million people...
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