List of Developing Countries in 2016

Developing countries is an umbrella term —with no universal definition— for low and middle-income countries with lower industrialization and human development rates than other —developed— countries.

developing countries
The term developing countries is problematic because it disregards the heterogeneous nature of the global community. Due to widespread acceptace of the term, especially by official statistics, this article lists low-income and lower-middle income economies (World Bank) as developing countries – Photo Credit: Flickr

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: DEFINITION AND PROBLEMATIC NATURE

Developing countries are typically defined through their Gross National Income (GNI) per capita per year. A definition by the World Bank (2013) lists them as countries with a GNI of $11,905 or less. However, the use of this term is highly problematic and is being challenged today. In fact, some organizations —the World Bank included— have discarded it from their data vocabulary. The main reason is that using this term and parameter to group countries together ignores the heterogeneous nature of the global community. Further motives include the implication of inferiority of “developing countries” in comparison to “developed ones” and the use of a Western definition for development some countries do not identify with.  Moreover, the term “developing countries” suggests mobility, which is not an accurate depiction of some economies, namely those of the African countries devastated by the HIV/AIDS pandemic.

developing countries list
Much akin to how people are different from each other, all countries have different needs and issues, hence why lumping countries like China, India and Malawi (all considered developing countries) into one category and patching all their issues with one solution does more harm than good – Photo Credit: WSP.org

Finally, the term developing countries is more representative of the Millennium Development Goals than it is of the Sustainable Development Goals. The former saw some countries as helpers and the rest as calling for help help, whereas the latter view all countries as needing development. In this sense, grouping countries as “developed”, “developing” and “least developed” perhaps won’t prove effective in gathering analytically useful data.

developing countries list
In the frame of the Sustainable Development Goals, all countries are viewed as needing development, so it is pointless to class them into developed and developing countries – Photo Credit: Smugmug.com

CRITERIA USED FOR THE SELECTION OF THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THIS LIST

In this sense, the list below is comprised of those countries whose economies were listed as “low income” and “lower-middle income” by the World Bank classification published in July 1, 2016. The former are described as economies with a GNI per capita in 2015 of US $1,025 or less. The latter are described by the World Bank as economies with a GNI per capita in 2015 between US $1,026 and $4,035. These estimates were calculated using the World Bank Atlas Method.

It is worth noting that the World Bank definition for country —use interchangeably with economy— “does not imply political independence but refers to any territory for which authorities report separate social or economic statistic” (World Bank, 2016).

LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN 2016: LOW INCOME ECONOMIES (GNI IN USD)

Source: World Bank Country and Lending Groups (2016)

Afghanistan

GNI: 630

Rank on Human Development Index: 171

Benin

GNI: 860

Rank on Human Development Index: 166

Burkina Faso

Gross National Income: 660

Rank on Human Development Index: 183

Burundi

GNI: 260

Rank on Human Development Index: 184

Central African Republic

GNI: 320

Rank on Human Development Index: 187

Chad

GNI: 880

Rank on Human Development Index: 185

Comoros

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 159

Democratic Republic of the Congo

GNI: 410

Rank on Human Development Index: 176

Eritrea

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 186

Ethiopia

GNI: 590

Rank on Human Development Index: 174

The Gambia

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 175

Guinea

GNI: 470

Rank on Human Development Index: 182

Guinea-Bissau

Gross National Income: 590

Rank on Human Development Index: 178

Haiti

GNI: 820

Rank on Human Development Index: 163

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea

GNI: No data available

Rank on Human Development Index: No data available

Liberia

GNI: 380

Rank on Human Development Index: 177

Madagascar

GNI: 420

Rank on Human Development Index: 154

Malawi

GNI: 350

Rank on Human Development Index: 173

Mali

GNI: 790

Rank on Human Development Index: 179

Mozambique

GNI: 580

Rank on Human Development Index: 180

Nepal

GNI: 730

Rank on Human Development Index: 145

Rwanda

GNI: 700

Rank on Human Development Index: 163

Senegal

GNI: 1,000

Rank on Human Development Index: 170

Sierra Leone

GNI: 630

Rank on Human Development Index: 181

Somalia

GNI: No data available

Rank on Human Development Index: No data available

South Sudan

GNI: 790

Rank on Human Development Index: 169

Tanzania

GNI: 910

Rank on Human Development Index: 151

Togo

GNI: 540

Rank on Human Development Index: 162

Uganda

GNI: 670

Rank on Human Development Index: 163

Zimbabwe

GNI: 850

Rank on Human Development Index: 155

LIST OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN 2016: LOWER-MIDDLE INCOMES (GNI IN USD)

Source: World Bank Country and Lending Groups (2016)

Armenia

GNI: 3,880

Rank on Human Development Index: 85

Bangladesh

GNI: 1,190

Rank on Human Development Index: 142

Bhutan

GNI: 2,370

Rank on Human Development Index: 132

Bolivia

GNI: 3,080

Rank on Human Development Index: 119

Cabo Verde

GNI: 3,290

Rank on Human Development Index: 122

Cambodia

GNI: 1,070

Rank on Human Development Index: 143

Cameroon

GNI: 1,330

Rank on Human Development Index: 153

Republic of the Congo

GNI: 2,540

Rank on Human Development Index: 136

Côte d’Ivoire

GNI: 1,410

Rank on Human Development Index: 172

Djibouti

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 168

Arab Republic of Egypt

GNI: 3,340

Rank on Human Development Index: 108

El Salvador

GNI: 3,940

Rank on Human Development Index: 116

Ghana

GNI: 1,480

Rank on Human Development Index: 140

Guatemala

GNI: 3,590

Rank on Human Development Index: 128

Honduras

GNI: 2,270

Rank on Human Development Index: 131

India

GNI: 1,590

Rank on Human Development Index: 130

Indonesia

GNI: 3,440

Rank on Human Development Index: 110

Kenya

GNI: 1,340

Rank on Human Development Index: 145

Kiribati

GNI: 3,230

Rank on Human Development Index: 137

Kosovo

GNI: 3,950

Rank on Human Development Index: No data available

Kyrgyz Republic

GNI: 1,170

Rank on Human Development Index: 120

Lao People’s Democratic Republic

GNI: 1,730

Rank on Human Development Index: 141

Lesotho

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 161

Mauritania

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 156

Federate States of Micronesia

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 123

Moldova

GNI: 2,220

Rank on Human Development Index: 107

Mongolia

GNI: 3,830

Rank on Human Development Index: 90

Morocco

GNI: 3,040

Rank on Human Development Index: 126

Myanmar

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 148

Nicaragua

GNI: 1,940

Rank on Human Development Index: 125

Nigeria

GNI: 2,820

Rank on Human Development Index: 152

Pakistan

GNI: 1,440

Rank on Human Development Index: 147

Papua New Guinea

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 158

Philippines

GNI: 3,540

Rank on Human Development Index: 115

Samoa

GNI: 3,930

Rank on Human Development Index: 105

São Tomé and Principe

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 143

Solomon Islands

GNI: 1,940

Rank on Human Development Index: 156

Sri Lanka

GNI: 3,800

Rank on Human Development Index: 73

Sudan

GNI: 1,840

Rank on Human Development Index: 167

Swaziland

GNI: 3,230

Rank on Human Development Index: 150

Syrian Arab Republic

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 134

Tajikistan

GNI: 1,240

Rank on Human Development Index: 129

Timor-Leste

GNI: 1,920

Rank on Human Development Index: 133

Tonga

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 100

Tunisia

GNI: 3,970

Rank on Human Development Index: 96

Ukraine

GNI: 2,620

Rank on Human Development Index: 81

Uzbekistan

GNI: 2,150

Rank on Human Development Index: No data available

Vanuatu

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 134

Vietnam

GNI: 1,980

Rank on Human Development Index: 116

West Bank and Gaza

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: No data available

Republic of Yemen

GNI: Undisclosed

Rank on Human Development Index: 160

Zambia

GNI: 1,490

Rank on Human Development Index: 139

List of Developing Countries in 2016

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